Peer-reviewed (refereed)


2018. “Indonesia” in Asia’s Quest for Balance: China’s Rise and Balancing in the Indo-Pacific, ed. Jeff Smith. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 67-81


The Non-Aligned philosophy is so deeply ingrained in Indonesia's foreign policy thinking that the country has eschewed formal alliances altogether. Even efforts to develop security partnerships short of alliances, especially with major powers like the United States and China, are closely scrutinized and can quickly generate domestic political oppositions for any administration in Jakarta. These broad contours of Indonesia's foreign policy help us better locate Indonesia's relationship with China within its broader political and historical contexts.

Book available here for purchase.


2018. "Drifting Towards Dynamic Equilibrium: Indonesia's South China Sea Policy Under Yudhoyono", in Aspirations with Limitations: Indonesia's Foreign Affairs under Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, ed. Ulla Fionna, Siwage Dharma Negara, Deasy Simandjuntak. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 153-175


This chapter examines Indonesia's South China Sea policy under President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. For much of his administration (2004-14), Indonesia held on to three inter-related polic y concepts: non-claimant, honest broker, and confidence-builder. This chapter explores the broader strategic contexts underpinning these concepts and consider how Yudhoyono followed the footsteps of his predecessors in responding to the developments in the South China Sea.

Book available here for purchase (incl. chapter PDFs)


2018. "Abandoned at Sea: The Tribunal Ruling and Indonesia's Missing Archipelagic Foreign Policy", Asian Politics & Policy, Vol. 10, No. 2: pp. 300-321 (with Ristian Atriandi Supriyanto)


Indonesia's response to the 2016 UNCLOS tribunal ruling was underwhelming, even as a nonclaimant in the South China Sea disputes. Given its maritime geography and interests, the response is symptomatic of the country's underdevelopment of an “archipelagic foreign policy”—one where the entire foreign policy system, from its bureaucracy, doctrine, and strategy, should be geared to secure and defend its external maritime interests. This article further argues that the authoritarian New Order regime (1966–1998) repressed the development of an archipelagic foreign policy in two ways: (1) the army‐dominated foreign policy establishment deprioritized external maritime interests and (2) the infusion of the National Resilience (Ketahanan Nasional) concept into the “Archipelagic Outlook” (Wawasan Nusantara) doctrine as a regime maintenance tool further “domesticated” what could have been a geopolitical outlook. These authoritarian legacies put Indonesia's foreign policy on a path‐dependent trajectory that even President Joko Widodo's Global Maritime Fulcrum could not break.


2017. "Pragmatic Equidistance: How Indonesia Manages its Great Power Relations", in China, the United States, and the Future of Southeast Asia, ed. David Denoon. New York, NY: New York University Press, pp. 113-135


This chapter describes the rationale and nature of Indonesia’s foreign policy vis-à-vis the United States and China. It places Indonesia’s foreign policy pertaining to these two countries within the broader context of Jakarta’s overall management of its great power relations. I argue that Indonesia’s approach can be described as one of ‘pragmatic equidistance’. As an approach to great power management, pragmatic equidistance captures the idea of fully engaging one great power in various forms of cooperation — from economic to defense matters — while simultaneously maintaining both strategic autonomy and keeping equal balance with other great powers.

The book has been reviewed by Contemporary Southeast Asia and China Report.


2016. "The Domestic Politics of Indonesia's Approach to the Tribunal Ruling and the South China Sea", Contemporary Southeast Asia, 38 (3): pp. 382-388


This article argues that Indonesia’s inconsistency should be placed within the deeper and broader historical ambivalence embedded in the bilateral relationship with China and in Indonesia’s awkward non-claimant position, as well as the country’s chaotic domestic maritime security governance. These permissive (or antecedent) conditions, however, are necessary but insufficient to explain Indonesia’s lukewarm response to the ruling. This article argues that President Jokowi’s lack of personal interest and grasp of foreign policy provides the more proximate (or triggering) condition behind the response. Specifically, his aloofness has led to deteriorating bureaucratic politics and the growing influence of a small number of advisers outside of the foreign ministry — a “foreign policy oligarchy” if you will — in the formulation of the country’s China policy.


2011. “Indonesia’s Rising Regional and Global Profile: Does Size Really Matter?“, Contemporary Southeast Asia 33 (2): pp. 157 – 182


This paper seeks to challenge the view that Indonesia’s geographical and population size account for its rising regional and global profile. Instead, it makes three inter-related arguments. First, the manifestations of Indonesia’s foreign policy and global profile have always been based on its ability to harness the country’s normative and moral voice. Second, while democratization since 1998 has allowed Indonesia to restore its reputation in world affairs and provided it with a new source of “soft power”, it has also complicated foreign policy-making. Third, Indonesia’s large geographical size and population have been a source of persistent internal security threats, and because the government has been unable to meet national defence requirements, the growth in its defence diplomacy activities reflect the country’s continuing strategic weakness rather than its strength

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2011. “Variations on a Theme: Dimensions of Ambivalence in Indonesia-China Relations,” Harvard Asia Quarterly 13 (1): pp. 24-31


Is Indonesia finally joining the Chinese bandwagon? Upon taking a closer look at the evolution in the bilateral relations, however, the answer to this question is not so straightforward. Indeed, the picture of Indonesia’s policy towards China is not a simple question of hedging, balancing, band-wagoning, or some variation of the three — though many analyses of Southeast Asian responses to China’s rise focus on these specific strategies. This paper argues instead that, when located within the broader evolution of Indonesia-China relations, Jakarta’s policy towards China is that of persistent ambivalence and ambiguity. This paper aims to explain the ambivalence in Indonesia–China relations by assessing its four main dimensions: domestic politics, economics, strategic and security, and regional and foreign policy. These dimensions of ambivalence largely originate from deep-rooted sentiments and from the perceptions of the Indonesian public and elite, which are in turn shaped by a long history of mutual interaction, the place of ethnic Chinese-Indonesians in Indonesian society, as well as by China’s geographic proximity.


2011. “The Enduring Strategic Trinity: Explaining Indonesia’s Geopolitical Architecture,” Journal of the Indian Ocean Region 7 (1): pp. 95-116


This paper seeks to describe and assess the geopolitical architecture of Indonesia as the largest archipelagic state in the world. It makes two main inter-related arguments. First, Indonesia’s geographical traits suggest that it could be both a source of weakness and vulnerability as much as it brings enormous potential for political, economic, and even military power. Second, the historical origins and conceptual foundations of ‘geopolitics’ as a policy theme suggest that Indonesia’s geopolitical architecture is based on three building blocks  the ‘strategic trinity’: geostrategy (the military and security dimensions), geoeconomics (the resource and economic dimensions), and geopolitics (the social and political dimensions). While these arguments are not novel in themselves, this paper represents among the first attempts to systematically analyse and assess Indonesia’s geographical traits and how they shape the country’s strategic thinking, foreign policy, and national security system. The paper will also consider how Indonesia’s geopolitical architecture could help explain the country’s resurgent interest in the Indian Ocean Region in recent years.


Book reviews


Strangers Next Door? Indonesia and Australia in the Asian Century, Edited by Tim Lindsey and Dave McRae (Oxford and Portland, Oregon: Hart Publishing, 2018).

Reviewed in Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 40, No. 3 (2018), pp. 530–32


Despite the breadth and depth of the book, the absence of an analytical or theoretical framework that might have brought together the different insights provided by the chapters is unfortunate. Like any edited volume, coherence is often a challenge, especially given the multi-disciplinary backgrounds of the authors.


2016 Defence White Paper (Commonwealth of Australia, 2016) (available here)

Reviewed in Security Challenges, Vol. 12, No. 1 (2016), pp. 165-170


As Canberra gradually abandons traditional security-centric assumptions about Indonesia, the DWP2016 sets the tone of the bilateral relationship in geo-economic terms. While DWP2016 provides a broader space for cooperation by highlighting the strategic goal of common prosperity, the changing strategic landscape — particularly the South China Sea and the US-China strategic rivalry — casts a long shadow over assessments of Jakarta’s regional leadership


Condemned to Crisis? By Ken Ward. Sydney: Penguin Books and Lowy Institute for International Policy, 2015. Hardcover: 152pp

Reviewed in Contemporary Southeast Asia Vol. 37, No. 3 (2015), pp. 505–8


Condemned to Crisis? could not have come at a better time. While Indonesia–Australia bilateral relations have often been subject to ups and downs, the roller coaster ride seems to have grown more erratic in recent years. Indeed, lunging from crisis to crisis has seemingly become “the new normal” in how Jakarta and Canberra deal with one another, even as Australian observers maintain that a warm relationship with Indonesia is invaluable



Short essays

Indonesian foreign policy needs to focus more on impact than process”, The Jakarta Post, Dec 15, 2018

Will religious sectarianism change Indonesian foreign policy?”, The Strategist, Dec 11, 2018

Buck-passing from behind: Indonesia's foreign policy and the Indo-Pacific”, Order from Chaos (Brookings Institution), Nov 27, 2018

Why does it matter to Indonesia if Australia moves its embassy to Jerusalem?”, The Strategist, Nov 23, 2018

Indonesia's Indo-Pacific vision is a call for ASEAN to stick together instead of picking sides”, South China Morning Post, Nov 20, 2018

"Promises and pitfalls of Indonesia's faith in multilateralism", The Jakarta Post, February 1, 2018

"An Indo-Pacific construct with 'Indonesian characteristics'," The Strategist, February 6, 2018

"Indonesia-US relations: sweating the small stuff", The Interpreter, January 9, 2018

"Indonesia: strategic threat or strategic partner?", The Strategist, January 17, 2018

"Why Indonesia’s new map is not (all) about the South China Sea", The Strategist, August 1, 2017

"Foreign policy implications of Jakarta's election", The Jakarta Post, June 7, 2017

"The (maritime) recalibration of Indonesia-Australia defence relations", The Strategist, March 23, 2017

"Indonesian Sea Policy: Accelerating Jokowi's Global Maritime Fulcrum?," Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative, March 23, 2017

"Should Indonesia and Australia jointly patrol the South China Sea?," The Jakarta Post, March 13, 2017

"In Indo-Pacific strategic flux, where is Indonesia?," The Jakarta Post, February 27, 2017

"Indonesia-Australia relations and the perils of success", The Jakarta Post, Jan. 30, 2017

"Will a trump presidency be disastrous for Indonesia?," The Jakarta Post, Nov. 14, 2016

"How do we know a successful foreign policy when we see one?," The Jakarta Post, Oct. 25, 2016

"How do we engage a hegemonic China?," The Jakarta Post, October 12, 2016

"Is Indonesia militarizing the South China Sea?, The Jakarta Post, July 11, 2016

"A post-non-claimant South China Sea policy," The Jakarta Post, June 20, 2016

"Here's why Jakarta doesn't push back when China barges into Indonesian waters," Washington Post's Monkey Cage, April 28, 2016

"Jakarta left all at sea by island clash with China," New Mandala, April 5, 2016

"The domestic politics of Jakarta's South China Sea policy," The Interpreter, April 1, 2016

"Strategi politik luar negeri menghadapi NIIS," Kompas, January 20, 2016

"Perubahan arus lingkungan strategis Indonesia," Kompas, December 9, 2015

"A way forward for Indonesia-Australia relations," The Interpreter, May 28, 2105

"Indonesia’s new president can deepen cooperation with United States and Europe," GMF Transatlantic Take, August 15, 2014.

"Why there is no new ‘maritime dispute’ between Indonesia and China," The Strategist, April 4, 2014

"Jakarta Eyes the South China Sea,” The Diplomat, 23 February 2011

"Indonesia’s quest for a ‘middle way’ for Myanmar", Today Newspaper, Apr 29, 2010

"U.S., Indonesia must avoid false promises and pitfalls", World Politics Review, 26 March 2010

"Challenges for Indonesia’s foreign policy in transition", Today Newspaper, Feb 27, 2010

"The 'Yudhoyono paradox'", Today Newspaper, Jan 30, 2010

"RI’s changing geo-strategic currents", The Jakarta Post, January 9, 2010

"Indonesia’s pivotal role in the US’s grand strategy", The Jakarta Post, Oct 6, 2009

"Defence pact: Getting the message across", The Straits Times, Jul 20, 2007